S.C. – 獨立主格 ( 注意 With 當句首的用法)

我不知是哪裡搜集來的,反正就是配合Calvin共襄盛舉一番

獨立主格

(一): 獨立主格結構的構成:
名詞(代詞)+現在分詞、過去分詞;名詞(代詞)+形容詞;名詞(代詞)+副詞;名詞(代詞)+不定式;名詞(代詞) +介詞短語構成。

(二) 獨立主格結構的特點:
1)獨立主格結構的邏輯主語與句子的主語不同,它獨立存在。
2)名詞或代詞與後面的分詞,形容詞,副詞,不定 式,介詞等是主謂關係。
3)獨立主格結構一般有逗號與主句分開。

舉例:
The test finished, we began our holiday.
= When the test was finished, we began our holiday.
考試結束了,我們開始放假。

The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
= After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
總統被謀殺了,舉國上下沉浸在悲哀之中。

Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.
如果天氣允許,我們明天去看你。

This done, we went home.工作完成後,我們才回家。

The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier.
會議結束後,每個人都想早點回家。

He came into the room, his ears red with cold.
他回到了房子�,耳朵凍壞了。

He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.
他夾著本厚書,走出了圖書館

With的複合結構作獨立主格
表伴隨時,既可用分詞的獨立結構,也可用with的複合結構。
with +名詞(代詞)+現在分詞/過去分詞/形容詞/副詞/不定式/介詞短語
舉例:
He stood there, his hand raised.
= He stood there, with his hand raise.

典型例題
The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。
A. being tied
B. having tied
C. to be tied
D. tied

答案D. with +名詞(代詞)+分詞+介詞短語結構。當分詞表示伴隨狀況時,其主語常常用with來引導。由於本句中名詞"手"與分詞"綁"是被動關係,因此用過去分詞,選D.

注意:
1)、獨立主格結構使用介詞的問題:
當介詞是in時,其前後的兩個名詞均不加任何成分(如物主代詞或冠詞),也不用複數。但 with 的複合結構不受此限制
A robber burst into the room, knife in hand.( hand前不能加his)。
2)、當表人體部位的詞做邏輯主語時,及物動詞用現在分 詞,不及物動詞用過去分詞。
e lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up.

典型例題:
Weather___, we’ll go out for a walk.
A permitted
B permitting
C permits
D for permitting

答案B. 本題中沒有連詞,它不是複合句,也不是並列句。 句中使用了逗號,且we 小寫,可知其不是兩個簡單句。能夠這樣使用的只有獨立主格或with的複合結構。據此判斷,本句中使用的是獨立結構, 其結構為:名詞+分詞。 由於permit在這�翻譯為’天氣允許’,表主動,應用現在分詞,故選B。

如果不會判斷獨立結構作狀語的形式,不妨將句子改為條件句,例如本句改為If weather permits, we’ll go out for a walk. 然後將if 去掉,再將謂語動詞改為非謂語動詞即可。

About alwayscola18

*Always be misunderstood. *Majored in business administration, but contributing to satisfaction of primary living needs. *Prefer to speak out, and enjoy silence. *A Mandarin speaker, but not a grand-China nationalist; a Hokkien dialect speaker, but not an aggressive grass-root activist; an English reader, but not negative to my homeland; a baby Christian, but not a confrontationist to the God of earth. *With personalities of patience, cleverness, discernment, toleration, self-confidence, and friendliness.
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