今天看到的ㄧ段文字 讓我想到 Denmark cartoon 事件

今天看到一段文字,就順手抄了下來,待會兒再寫我的想法。
 
However, it might be argue, it is rhetorically dangerous. There are two reasons. The fiirst is that many people are not very clear about the possible ambiguities of such a statement. It might wrongly be taken as a hard generalisation. So unless these possible misinterpretations are deflected by making the exact intended meaning perfectly explicit, this generalisation will remain very provocative and likely cause of ill-feeling. The second reason is that, even if these ambiguities are resolved, generalisations (even soft ones) about groups of people do often cause people to take offence. So we don’t reasonably expect that people will always be able to overcome that feeling. Morality requires us to consider the consequences of our actions, and, since speech and writing are types of action, natural (though irrational) responses to what we say and write must sometimes be taken into account in deciding what we ought to say.
 
當你看到上述文字,你會不會跟最近鬧的火熱的丹麥漫畫事件聯結在一起?這期的經濟學人 (參閱此連結) 也對此議題搬到首頁。的確,以歐洲的觀點,言論自由是被法律所保障的,其效力甚至高於宗教!所以,當這件事發生之後,歐洲國家ㄧ面倒的斥責回教國家。但再細看裡面的報導,可以發現為何伊斯蘭人民會如此的憤怒。「they offend because they can be read as equating Islam with terrorism」(他們感到憤怒,因為他們在裡面讀到將伊斯蘭和恐怖主義畫上等號的訊息) 就是這裡,才會造成這一發不可收拾的局面。
 
的確,沒有人煽動、鼓勵,也不會在這麼短的時間內,擴大到這麼廣的區域,但我覺得,這不是唯一的原因,也不是最大的ㄧ個。
 
經濟學人是英國的權威雜誌,當你有這個背景認識後,你就會發現,這篇文章是寫給英美,或甚至說,歐洲國家人民看的。以宣傳的角度,這是ㄧ個單面訊息,頂多舉個反例,但卻加以擊破,為的是什麼?為的是使中心訊息更加鞏固在讀者心中。他並不是要提供一個理性的報導給讀者加以正反省思的,而只是當個宣傳機器,希望讀者站在作者這邊,即使是盲從也好。
 
我承認大家都有言論自由,也都有權利在公開場合完整表達自己的看法 (甚至詆毀他人),但是,有一點要注意的是,我已經先認為大家已經思考過當他說出一些話、做出一些事的後果 (consequences),也已經充分了解這些後果的內容,才會去說、去做。所以,當歐洲人在譏諷回教世界的恐怖行徑時,是否想過,這其實是在他們教義中被暗許的?若是已經了解這些後果:激怒廣大的伊斯蘭人民,卻又去做。那麼,這不就是「明知不可為卻又為之」嗎?
 
的確,丹麥作家始終擁有言論自由,到目前還是如此。
 
但對於詆毀到人們心中最重要的尊嚴,或是說,ㄧ個神聖不可侵犯的符號,那麼,他們心中的憤怒也就是意料中的事了,不是嗎?既然如此,在擁有且使用言論自由時,是否過於泛道德地解釋言論自由?這才是需要更加省視的。
 
還有,千萬別亂扣 ‘terrorism’ ,這是ㄧ個很 vague 的字!且也是最具侵略性、最不負責任的情緒字眼。

About alwayscola18

*Always be misunderstood. *Majored in business administration, but contributing to satisfaction of primary living needs. *Prefer to speak out, and enjoy silence. *A Mandarin speaker, but not a grand-China nationalist; a Hokkien dialect speaker, but not an aggressive grass-root activist; an English reader, but not negative to my homeland; a baby Christian, but not a confrontationist to the God of earth. *With personalities of patience, cleverness, discernment, toleration, self-confidence, and friendliness.
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